Recent controversies in many countries suggest a need for clarity on same-sex orientation, attraction, and behaviour formerly referred to as homosexuality.
Along with other international organisations, World Psychiatric Association WPA considers sexual orientation to be innate and determined by biological, psychological, developmental, and social factors. Over 50 years ago, Kinsey et al documented a diversity of sexual behaviours among people.
Globally, this equates to over million individuals. Psychiatrists have a social responsibility to advocate for a reduction in social inequalities for all individuals, including inequalities related to gender identity and sexual orientation.
Despite an unfortunate history of perpetuating stigma and discrimination, it has been decades since modern medicine abandoned pathologising same-sex orientation and behaviour APA The World Health Organization WHO accepts same-sex orientation as a normal variant of human sexuality WHO There is considerable research evidence to suggest that sexual behaviours and sexual fluidity depend upon a number of factors Ventriglio et al Furthermore, it has been shown conclusively that LGBT individuals show higher than expected rates of psychiatric disorders Levounis et alKalra et aland once their rights and equality are recognised these rates start to drop GonzalesHatzenbuehler et al, Padula et al People with diverse sexual orientations and gender identities may have grounds for exploring therapeutic options to help them live more comfortably, reduce distress, cope with structural discrimination, and develop a greater degree of acceptance of their sexual orientation or gender identity.
Such principles apply to any individual who experiences distress relating to an aspect of their identity, including heterosexual individuals. WPA believes strongly in evidence-based treatment. There is no sound scientific evidence "European psychiatric association homosexuality" innate sexual orientation can be changed.
Furthermore, so-called treatments of homosexuality can create a setting in which prejudice and discrimination flourish, and they European psychiatric association homosexuality be potentially harmful Rao and Jacob The World Psychiatric Association WPA holds the view that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are and should be regarded as valued members of society, who have exactly the same rights and responsibilities as all other citizens.
This includes equal access to healthcare and the rights and responsibilities that go along with living in a civilised society. WPA recognises the universality of same-sex expression, across cultures.
It holds the position that a same-sex sexual orientation per se does not imply objective psychological dysfunction or impairment in judgement, stability, or vocational capabilities. WPA considers same-sex attraction, orientation, and behaviour as normal variants of human sexuality.
It recognises the multi-factorial causation of sexuality, orientation, behaviour, and lifestyle. WPA acknowledges the social stigma and consequent discrimination of people with same-sex sexual orientation and transgender gender identity. It recognises that the difficulties they face are a significant cause of their distress and calls for the provision of adequate mental health support.
WPA supports the need to de-criminalise same—sex sexual orientation and behaviour and transgender gender identity, and to recognise LGBT rights to include human, civil, and political rights.
It also supports anti-bullying legislation; anti-discrimination student, employment, and housing laws; immigration equality; equal age of consent laws; and hate crime laws providing enhanced criminal penalties for prejudice-motivated violence against LGBT people. American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd edition.
How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender?
Accessed March 4, Same-sex marriage — a prescription for better health. New England Journal of Medicine State-level policies and psychiatric morbidity in lesbian, gay and bisexual populations.
American Journal of Public Health, Effect of same sex marriage laws on health care use and expenditures in sexual minority men: Sexuality and mental health: International Review of Psychiatry, Sexual Behavior in the Male. Journal of General Internal Medicine: Born Free and Equal: New York and Geneva: Sexual minorities and sexual fluidity.